There are many ancient pyramids in Egypt, but not all of them are royal tombs. Some have a worship role, others just a satellite of the main pyramid. But almost all of them are in Lower Egypt, near the Blue Delta, and almost all on the West Bank, dedicated to the kingdom of the dead.
These are mainly divided into Necropolis, Giza being the most famous, but we also know very well about Sakkara, where there are 15 pyramids (a record), Dahshur, Maidum, Abusir, etc, although the Khufu pyramid is by far the best known of all Egyptian pyramids, the other two on the Giza Plateau. Often acknowledged: there are his son Khafra and his grandson Menkaur.
Well known enough, Xosar and the famous rhomboid pyramids are among the most notable. Depending on the time, the dynasties chose to build their necropolis in different parts of present-day Egypt and left the country with many historical sites that are often less well known than the architectural elements of travel guides. And although lesser-known, these places sometimes deserve a spotlight for their technical features, but often for their historical interest.
1. Pyramid of Unas
The pyramids of Unas are found in the Sakkara region. Built-in the 24th century BC, the pyramid of Unas was built for Pharaoh Una, who served as the final ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. Although the pyramid of Unas was originally meters (111 feet) long, the pyramid is largely destroyed today. The pyramid of Unas is significant in large part because it is now known as the pyramid text which was the first of these.
Pharaoh’s wall was engraved with magical inscriptions designed to protect him in the Hereafter. After Unas, several pharaohs did the same thing, a general trend began among Egyptian kings. It is believed that the pyramid texts were the inspiration for later coffin texts and the Book of the Dead.
Made of limestone, the pyramid of Unas was rediscovered by Western researchers in the nineteenth century, and a mummy was found in the tomb at that time. However, historians cannot be sure that the remains were Unas, as they may later be great people.
2. Pyramid of Khufu
Of the seven ancient wonders of the world, the Khufu Pyramid is the only one left. The Pyramid of Khufu is also the largest in Egypt and is centrally located in Giza. The structure goes by many names, including the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Pyramid of Chios. Ian’s historians believe that the Khufu Pyramid was built in 2560 BC and took 10 to 20 years to build.
The pyramid is named because it is believed to be the tomb of the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty. It is said to be the architect of the incredible pyramid structure of Khufu Vizier Hemiunu. The construction involved more than two million blocks that had to be transported from the local quarry and the primary materials used included limestone, granite, and mortar.
Today, the Khufu Pyramid stands 139 meters (455 feet) high, but the erosion means it may be smaller today than it was during construction. When you visit the Khufu Pyramid, keep in mind that most of the historic artifacts kept in the structure at the time of Khufu’s death were stolen centuries ago, and what remains of recent history has been sent to museums around the world.
3. Pyramid of Lahun
The Pyramid of Lahun, also known as El-Lahun, was built in 1180 BC under the reign of Senusreta II of the 12th Dynasty. El-Lahun means the mouth of the canal, and it was located next to the water. This pyramid is now ruined, and the causes and paths inside it are ruined and inaccessible.
Even in the 1840s, when explorers were keen to discover and document as many Egyptian pyramids as possible, it took months for British archaeologist Sir Flinders to find the entrance to the Petri Pyramid. The entrance to the Lahun pyramid was hidden in the courtyard on the south side of the structure, although the north side was the common entrance for religious reasons.
The Pyramid of Lahun is one of the first pyramids in Egypt, where protecting the contents and securing the tomb was considered more important than following the historic protocol. Although there are no remains, the outer part of the pyramid at Lahun is believed to have been covered with decorated granite. Natural limestone was already used as an efficient foundation for the pyramids, which made construction easier than usual. A small black granite pyramid was probably placed at the top of the structure for its top structure.
4. Pyramid of Userkaf
One of the pyramids found in Sakkara is the Pyramid of Userkaf, built between 2494–2487 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Userkaf, a fifth dynasty. Far from poetic, the local name for the pyramid, El-Haram El-Mahrabish, translates directly as a pile of stones. The user case contains a portion of the wreckage and the remaining materials were made of stone.
Today, the pyramid of Usercafe is on the verge of destruction, and it looks more like a conical mountain made of sand than the real pyramid. The Pyramid of Usercafe was a structure that was different from the pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty and in many ways it inspired the pyramids of the later Fifth Dynasty.
The Causeway maintains a high-rise high wall around the UserCaf complex and a tomb connecting it to the main pyramid. However, it also introduced new ideas such as north-south axis orientation and the inclusion of a small chapel on the outside instead of the inside of the pyramid.
5. Pyramid of Hawara
Three hours south of Cairo is the Pyramid of Hawara, built by Amenmehat III, the sixth Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty. Historians built the Pyramid of Hawara in 1850 BC, which is about 3,865 years old today. The Pyramid of Hawara is often called the Black Pyramid because it looks much darker than other Egyptian pyramids from the same period. The pyramid was made of bricks and then covered with limestone, giving it a dark look.
When it was first built, the Pyramid of Hawara was about 60 meters (200 feet) long, although the erosion and desert sands have gradually reduced in height over time. It’s first, called Dashur, did not succeed and collapsed shortly after construction. As a result, the Hawaiian pyramid is built with lower angles to prevent collapse. But even today this second pyramid is eroded, vaguely a little higher than a pile of earthen brick bricks.
6. Pyramid of Teti
The Pyramid of Teti is another important installation located in the pyramidal fields of Sakkara. Excavations and excavations in the late nineteenth century revealed that the pyramid of Teti was a major pyramid for the king’s burial, a fun temple, and two small pyramids that were probably built for Pharaoh Teti’s queens. From the ground above, the pyramid of Teti looks like it has been destroyed, and it could be wrong for a small hill instead of a pyramid structure.
Fortunately, the corridors and chambers located underground are in better condition and have been surprisingly preserved over time. Although the Valley Temple is lost, you can still see Tetti’s Room of the Greats, the inner chapel has five different statues of Pharaoh Teti, the long landing hallway leading to the cemetery, the fun written for the pharaoh, and the pyramid on the apartment wall.
7. Pyramid of Meidum
Maidam, about 100 kilometers (60 miles) south of Cairo, is a pyramid that stands almost as high as the pyramid of Menkaurin in Giza. Madame was built during the Third Dynasty of Egypt, which means it is older than the Pyramids of Giza. The Miedum was designed for Honey, the last of the Pharaohs of the Third Dynasty. You can see that at this stage, pyramid construction was not yet a science.
Instead of smooth sides, the Miedum was originally built as a step pyramid, with a roof to facilitate construction for each level. The outer layer used sand instead of stone, which may have caused the pyramid to collapse over time. Today, Meidum has three steps or levels, which are visible.
It has no steep peak at the top, which is why many Egyptians call it El-Haram El-Kadab, or Pseudo-Pyramid. However, the pyramid of Meidum is still quite a spectacular value. Upon entering, you will walk along a passageway that is supported by structural structures, and you can enter the unfinished cemetery. A collection of masts or tombs around the pyramids, made of clay bricks.
8. Pyramid of Menkaure
When people talk about the Pyramid of Giza, they refer to three distinct structures: the Pyramid of Khufu, the Pyramid of Khafar, and the Pyramid of Menkaur. Of the three, the Pyramid of Mankaur is by far the smallest. However, it has a definite place in the geyser layout and is a spectacular value when you are in the area. Built for Pharaoh Menkaur of the Fourth Dynasty in 2510 BC, the pyramid stands at a total height of 65 meters (213 feet).
This puts the pyramid of Mankaur at about half the height of its neighboring pyramid. The materials used in the construction of the pyramids of Mankaur were red granite, which is used at the bottom of the pyramid, and limestone, which is used at the top. Parts of the pyramid were covered with granite, which archaeologists and historians believe was unfinished.
If you look at the pyramids of Mankaur today, you may notice that a vertical strip of stone is missing on one side of the structure. Surprisingly, this is the result of a serious attempt by Saladin’s son to demolish the pyramids in the twelfth century. Fortunately, the process was time-consuming and expensive, and eventually, the process was abandoned.
9. Step Pyramid of Djoser
Just 25 km (15 miles) south of Cairo is an area called Sakkara, with a pyramid field filled with some of the earliest pyramids in Egyptian history. One of the most notable is the Step Pyramid of Joser, widely believed to be the oldest cut-stone structure in the world, and an equally important landmark for Egyptians, archaeologists, and architects.
The Step Pyramid of Joser was built by Pharaoh Joser’s vizier Imhotep in the third dynasty and was completed around the 27th century BC. Compared to the general picture of the Egyptian pyramids, the pyramids of Joser look different. This is because instead of the smooth side, Xosa is a step pyramid. Each level, or roof, was built on the next top. Technically, the design is one of six masts piled on top of each other, each mastic smaller than the end. The entire Josa complex was surrounded by a limestone wall and had 14 doors in the wall.
10. Red Pyramid
The Red Pyramid, also known as the Northern Pyramid, is found in Dahshur. Its name comes from the red limestone used in its construction. After the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Giza, the largest base of any pyramid in Egypt is the Red Pyramid. However, it is significantly smaller at 104 meters (341 feet) when its sides are tilted at 43 degrees. Today it is the third-largest and fourth tallest pyramid in Egypt.
The Red Pyramid was the second (or possibly third) pyramid built by Pharaoh Snefru (2575-2551 BC) and probably began between the twenty-second and nineteenth years of his reign. According to various inscriptions found on some blocks of stone, it took about 17 years to make. It is 105 meters (345 feet) high and has three rooms. Like most Egyptian pyramids, the entrance faces north. It gives access to a 60 meter (200 feet) passage. Below this passage is a small corridor that leads to the first chamber. This chamber is about 12 meters (40 feet) high.
11. Pyramid of Khafre
Adjacent to the Khafur Pyramid is the Pyramid of Khafur. Although the pyramid of Khafur is somewhat smaller, it is often considered to be the sister structure of Khafur. Built-in 2570 BC, just a decade after Khafur, the pyramid of Khafur also belongs to the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty. The Pyramid of Khafar, however, was designed as the final resting place of Pharaoh Khafar, also known as Shefren in the history books. Although the pyramid of Khafur is technically smaller than Khafur, at first glance it looks bigger.
This is because the khafre is located on a bed, it offers a high height advantage, and because it boasts steep aspects, it makes a pointed top even more so. The construction of the Pyramid of Khafre demonstrates the incredible engineering and design abilities of the ancient Egyptians, especially when it comes to choosing limestone blocks that guarantee structural integrity. At the base of the pyramid of Khafar, the stones are large, but as the pyramid reaches its point, they shrink in size.
12. Bent Pyramid
After Giza and Saqqara, the most historically significant pyramid site in all of Egypt is Dahshur. The Bent Pyramid, in the heart of Dahshur, was built around 2600 BC during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu of the old kingdom. The Bent Pyramid is named after him for his construction. The foundation of the structure rises at an angle of 54 degrees from the desert, but the angle of the upper part is closer to 43 degrees.
As a result, the pyramid appears almost curved or heading to one side. The official name of the pyramid is Sneferu’s Pyramid or Southern Shining Pyramid. There are several theories about the curved nature of the pyramids, but few historians believe that this was a mistake.
Instead, the angle change could be attributed to Pharaoh’s failed health, which required the pyramid to be completed in less time, or it could be a preventive measure to prevent an impending collapse brought about by the steep angle of the original construction. It may also have been the result of the collapse of the nearby Madame Pyramid, which fell in large part because of its unprecedented steep angle.
No history The pyramid is undoubtedly the most tangible symbol of Egypt throughout history. Currently, historians have identified more than 100 pyramids throughout Egypt, most of which date to the ancient kingdoms and the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history. However, the Giza Plateau is not the only place where you can see the historic pyramids.
These ancient installations are found throughout Egypt and many visitors aim to see them as much as possible during their stay. With the well-known Great Sphinx and the Pyramid of Khufu, which most tourists will take pictures of during their trip to Egypt, look around some of the lesser-known, but less incredible, pyramids of the country.